nominalism= tendency of thought in medieval period that wants to say that the natures of things are just names but it comes from, medieval nominalism comes from a different source than early modern thought (one academic opinion)
Nominalism = Universal forms are not real
The God of Voluntarism Starting Point of Modernity
Dun Scotus originated>Ockham full form through Averroes. Primacy of the will over the intellect, agency over being is consequence. NOMIALISM NAMES OF THINGS NOT TIED TO REALITY & VOLUNTARISM OPERATION BEFORE FORM. Will is Sovereign.
Voluntarism leads to an understanding of Freedom means autonomy
William of Ockham (1287-1347) Franciscan
- -Promotion of Nominalism, denied the universal in the reality of the world,
- -Questioned the ability to prove the existence of God through philosophy
- – Rejected TA contention that there was harmony between faith and reason
- In ecclesiastical affairs, advocated idea of separation of Church from secular governance. Emperor could dispose Pope, but Emperor could not be deposed by Pope. Contra Pope Gelasius and Ambrose. Separation of Church by the state.
- –Occam’s razor= Beings should not multiply without necessity. The principle states that among competing hypotheses that predict equally well, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected.
- -Exiled, excommunicated, maybe reconciled with Church but not papacy at end of life
Found scholastic reasoning hard, usurped the help of God
A bad idea, erroneous first shot, go back to deviant, primacy of will, what I want opposed to what is true, deny form
Deny reality is not true, eyes show something truth, individual truth primacy, as opposed to universal truth recognizable by all
God made us to know love and serve. Can’t know Him, man will struggle
That nature is just inert stuff like shot gun pellets and that God moves it all immediately
Laws attached to nature, laws imposed by those with greater power, voluntarism
Law/ Law giver, done.
Why use the language of law?
Law is ordinance of reason promulgated by the relevant authority for the sake of the common good.
Talking about Laws of nature, this is how God constituting things
God constitutes human nature. We do not determine nature of rose. Man articulates what a rose is. Man can’t make a rose into a daisy. Can’t change its substance just its accidentals.
In the essence, God has determined it for us.
Dun Scotus articulate Mary immaculately conceived. Men of intellect, essential, essence way God speaks to Man so that we can know who God is. God left His mark in the essence of things, thingness. Bread crumbs leads us to Him