Nominalism ‘A rose by any other name would still smell sweet’ III


Glory of kings to search a matter out. Prov 25:2

Ex/ carbon shows the magnificence of God

Essence Satan hides hideousness within beauty, God alone can hide beauty within hideousness

Cross, crucifying their Creator, that act brought redemption nothing more hideous and beauty and beauty at the same time

Tiny little bowling balls arrayed wrt laws 2,3, 10 laws (science) don’t know. Just some. A law of motion, law of gravity, law of attraction, law of energy, law of magnetism, law of fermentation maybe get 2 or 3 more

Laws extrinsic realties, so many different pushes from the Law Giver onto the bowling balls, shot gun pellets

This is the conception of Nature

To see the thorough going rejection of nature( form, shape, morphe’)

Nature = a principle or cause of being moved or being at rest in the thing according to what it is. Aristotle’s conception of nature

Here there is nothing in the hard little thing just hard shot gun pellets moved extrinsically by laws.

  • John Paul II on the Corruption of Language: Evangelium Vitae (1995),
  • #58 We need now more than ever to have the courage to look the truth in the eye and to call things by their proper name, without yielding to convenient compromises or to the temptation of self-deception. . . Especially in the case of abortion

World arguing of humanity of unborn child, 4D ultrasounds not in use, visibly looking at picture of child in the womb, form of thing tells us the nature

Nominalist does not want to see a bay, exert his will and volition, powerful

[voluntarism not using as a synonym of charity, but will to power] will it to be so, not a child, or will to see a child

Voluntarism 1995 determines if a child is there

2020 transgenderism, will over unborn child use it over himself, words to prevent this in place in 1995, but could not have foreseen the situation of today

  1. William of Ockham (WoO) (1287-1347) Franciscan, Oxford
  • Reaction to John Duns Scotus (ultra realism) both Oxford/British, Franciscans

-Promotion (Prince) of Nominalism, denied the universal in the reality of the world

  • -Questioned the ability to prove the existence of God through philosophy
  • – Rejected TA contention that there was harmony between faith and reason

In ecclesiastical affairs, Pope & Prince treatise advocated idea of separation of Church from secular governance. Emperor could dispose Pope, but Pope could not depose emperor. Contra Pope Gelasius (440’s) and Ambrose (300’s).

  • Occam’s razor= parsimony (being careful with money or resources), Beings should not multiply without necessity. The principle states that among competing hypotheses that predict equally well, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected.

-Exiled, excommunicated, maybe reconciled with church but not papacy at end of life

  • Michael Cesena, their general, remain poor escaped from Avignon and fled to the protection of King Louis IV, the Bavarian

Species=likeness, one kind of thing, man

  • Augustine Latin term beauty=species

Universal =concept of things, predicate of many individuals

Intuitive cognition and abstractive cognition are 2 characteristics of knowledge in epistemology

Intuitive cognition= the intellect at once judges it to exist and evidently knows it to exist.

Abstractive cognition= which it cannot be evidently known of a thing whether it exists or does not exist. And in this way abstractive cognition, as opposed to intuitive cognition

Universals= simply and only fiction made up of the mind not chimera scholastics agree, connection of universal and to reality is what is impt

  • 1) Do universals exist?
  • 2) What are universals?
  • 3) How did universals come to be? Most important of the 3 questions
  1. a) Ultra-realists aka Idealists): Form/Idea Plato>Porphyry>Boethius>William of Champeaux

Truth must exist more perfectly than instances of it.

  • Lastingness of theirs= heaven of the Forms, realm of the Forms.
  • Cannot sense will not see it, it but can reason to its existence fact does it exists more lastingly in my mind or exists in reality, know it like 2+2 = 4
  1. b) Realists: Aristotle>Augustine>Anselm>Aquinas (Albert, Peter Lombard) what the mind borrows is the form of the thing, most complicated solution, real relationship between universal concepts and extra mental terms they signify, real connection between mental concept (universal) and thing these terms signify.
  • Like Aristotle the mind was capable of drawing away the intelligible conditions or form of the thing much like the senses draw away sensible conditions. Universal term/concept like rose, directly corresponds to nature of itself. Like smell of rose corresponds to the rose.

Causality, the universal term is caused by the intelligible species, which is caused by the form of things.

Realists argued the human mind can draw away the form/intelligible conditions of the thing. Like the senses can draw away the sensible/material of the thing. Ex rose.

Rose communicates sensible smell to bees, looks to butterflies & HB

  • Rose communicates Intelligible conditions,
  • What it communicates is called species= likeness of itself.

Only Human Beings rationally tuned to receive and understand these intelligible conditions.