Measure of his ideas is not reality or nature but his own sensation of this reality. For his (Nominalists) ideas are merely a reflection of his sense data
Nominalism could not understand the natures of things, realist uses the natures of things to mount up in reason to knowledge of God.
ex/ TA five ways. Could not use reason to know God. Metaphysics and natural theology were jettisoned.
- Nominalism Only One source to know God- revelation, faith. Sola fides
- Sola scriptura nominalism, Protestantism stands
- Sacraments symbols reflect grace of the faithful.
- Sacraments did not, could not convey real though invisible presence of God.
- Ordained ministers as if they have a grace that is communicated invisibly to them
- Sacraments no Ex opere operato grace communicated by thing itself. In antiquity, the idea led to a schism among the Donatist Christians. The Donatists held that “one of the three bishops who had consecrated Caecilian was a traditor“, and therefore, Caecilian’s consecration was invalid
The principle of ex opere operato affirms that while a proper disposition (openness) is necessary to exercise the efficacious grace in the sacraments, it is not the cause of the sufficient grace. Catholic Christians believe that what God offers in the sacraments is a gift, freely bestowed out of God’s own love.
Materialism, utilitarianism of nominalism seen clearly today
- – Ockham’s Razor= principle the simplest explanation is always the best. Trying to explain something avoid abstraction.
- Some profound things cannot explain simply, can’t sum in one sentence
- ex/ love for spouse
- Ockham takes this principle leads to nominalism
Nominalism= no universals only particulars
- Human nature (made to know & to love) as it is<> Ethics (transformation, reason seeking truly good) <> Telos human nature fulfillment
- Ockham’s Razor: too complex
- No ‘roseness’ rose, just a name, too complicated, no universal nature, cannot abstract, too complex, happen to call them markers. Nothing in reality to unite or share in common.
- I give it a name for convenience sake but do not share anything in common is reality
Dun Scotus William of Ockham destroyers lost talents for the Lord, pulled so many people out of the Church damage to society incalculable
Need a police state to keep order rather than laws proceeding from human nature common to all
- No universals, no “human nature” only particulars thing A, B, C
- No such thing as a common human nature
- TA (intellect/will) abstract theory, no human nature. Nothing that each human person shares in reality with others.
- If this is true, then there is no common moral law rooted in the way God made us, our human nature, rooted in our happiness
- Man A or Man B your individual life, do whatever you want
- Ockham is Not a relativist, does believe common moral for all just not rooted in human nature, mind seeking truth, will desiring goodness, not made for friendship too complicated
Does believe on should do exactly what God says same moral law. Rooted not in human nature but from outside of man the Divine Command. Pg 246-247
- Moral Law not about correspond to who man is but rather outside of one,
- Divine Command Theory= Follow God’s Law simply because He said so.
- ex/ God gives law to Man A, B, C thou shalt not kill. Does not have anything to do with human nature, intellect, will, happiness, telos. God completely free, He makes up law as He wills. We simply obey.
Mal formed conscious, will to power, I want it to be there it is, stunted emotional growth
- Ockham: God’s Law is NOT an expression of His Love for us. Just an expression of His will.
- Conscience over Scripture, I interpret Scripture myself, will over the intellect
- Moralities of Obligation
- Do the Law out of obligation, obliged to supreme deity told us to submit to his Will
- TA God gives us the law, which corresponds to how God made us. Law is for our happiness.
- Let’s now consider the two most important names in the Faith: Jesus & Mary.