Eucharist Pre-Constantine Era IV

V Justin Martyr c. 100- 168 Early Apologist, writes FROM Rome

  • Offers developed view of rites and understanding Eucharist

  • First Apology & Dialogue with Trypho written in Greek

  • Shape of Sunday Eucharist. Note Sunday was the special day set aside, not the Sabbath of Saturday.

  • Special place “”to where those from town and country come”. This does not fit the common notion of a domestic setting in the Mediterranean world. This is a shift in research from modern times, Deo graits.

(1 Apology 67)

  • Remembrance of Jesus Christ’s sufferings, incarnation, thanksgiving

  • Offered at length depending on the presider (1 Apology 67)

-OT types fulfilled in Eucharist: fine flour Lev 14:10-20 & Trypho 41,1; supply of bread promise Is 33:16 & Trypho 70,4; pure sacrifice rising of sun to its setting Mal 1:10-12 & Trypho 41,2

  • Eucharist praise to Trinity in everyplace

  • When offered by those worthy (Trypho 117,3)

  • Incarnation Christ “took flesh and blood for our salvation,” so too “the food over which thanks have been given through [a] word of prayer which is from him, from which our blood and flesh are fed by transformation, is both the flesh and blood of that incarnate Jesus.”

In parallel with the Incarnation, the act of thanksgiving, through words that come from the Logos, transforms the bread and wine into Jesus’ flesh and blood: the bread and wine are “eucharistized.” (1 Apology 65)

  • Not common food and have conditions for participation: faith & baptism.

Defined ritual (1 Apology 67)

Reading from apostles & prophets



Kiss of peace


Consecratory prayers with Amen



On a special day Sunday & special place

> Didache, Ignatius, and Justin together show that not all Christian meals were proper Eucharists.

Didache now first movement, growing beyond physical requirements. Need other means to instruct, format, codify structure. What is normative cant be visibly shown by the apostles. Hand on to generations. Early Church thought Jesus coming soon. Realize ‘soon’ has another time frame. Teachings of apostles set on paper lest it be lost.