Viruses & Autoimmune disease & Multidirectional Process

For a long time, viruses have been shown to modify the clinical picture of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), celiac disease (CD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Best examples of viral infections that have been proposed to modulate the induction and development of autoimmune diseases are the infections with enteric viruses such as Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rotavirus, as well as influenza A viruses (IAV), and herpesviruses. Other viruses that have been studied in this context include, measles, mumps, and rubella. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animal have shown that viral infections can induce or protect from autoimmunopathologies depending on several factors including genetic background, host-elicited immune responses, type of virus strain, viral load, and the onset time of infection.